SPANISH LANGUAGE HISTORY IN LATIN AMERICA

When Columbus arrived in America in 1492, the Spanish language was already consolidated in Spain, since during XIV and XV centuries took place some historical and idiomatic facts that contributed to Castilian dialect to conceive in a solider way than the other Romance dialects that were spoken in Spain, in addition to the orthographic normalization and the appearance of the Nebrija Grammar; but in this new world another process began call “hispanización”, the consolidation of this language,

The American idiomatic diversity was so wide, that some authors consider that this continent is one of the most linguistically fragmented, with around 123 families of languages, many of them have as well tens or even hundreds of languages and dialects. Nevertheless, some of the important indigenous languages - by their speaker number or their contribution to the Spanish language – are for exemple the Nahuatl, Tainen, the Mayan, Quechua, Aymaran, Guarani and Mapuche, to mention some them.

The Spanish language arrived in the American continent through the successive trips of Columbus and, soon, with colonizers groups that looked for new opportunities in America. When they tried to communicate with the natives, they resorted to the use of gestures and after to European interpreters or captive natives for such effect, that allowed the interunderstanding the so different cultures to each other.

The influence of the Religion was very important in this process, since it made, specially through Franciscans and Jesuits, an intense evangelization work and education of children and young people of different towns through the construction of schools and churches in the continent.

Nevertheless those first efforts were insufficient and the beginning to hispanicize America was developed only through the coexistence between Spaniards and Indians mainly with the mestization.

But not only the indigenous population was heterogenous, but it was also the Hispanic groups that colonized the American territory, because they came from the different regions from Spain, although mainly from Andalusia. This big proportion of Andalusians, who was based mainly in the Caribbean and Antillean area in the first years of the conquest, would have granted special characteristics to the American Spanish: the called “andalusian” of America, that is pronounced, specially in the phonetic aspect.

In the acoustic plane, for example, loss of the d between vowels (aburrío by boring) and end of word (usté by you, and virtú by virtue), confusion between l and r (“mardito” by “damn”) or aspiration of s final of syllable (“pahtoh” by “grass”) or the pronunciación of x, y, g, j, old like h, specially in the Antilles, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama or New Mexico, until Ecuador and the North coast of Peru.